Vitamin K - general information, importance, food sources, deficiency and others image

Vitamin K - General Information, Importance, Food Sources, Deficiency And Others

Vitamin K (the name is menadione) is a fat-soluble Vitamin that comes in two forms : 

  1. The primary type - is Phylloquinone (found in green leafy vegetables like collard greens, kale, spinach, etc.)
  2. The other type - is Menaquinones (found in some animal foods and fermented foods)

Bacteria can also produce Menaquinones in the human body.

Vitamin K (menadione) is found throughout the body, including the pancreas, liver, brain, heart, and bone. It is excreted through urine or stool. So, according to this, it rarely reaches toxic levels in the body.

Recommended Amounts (dose)

AI: An “adequate intake” is used when there is no exact proof to establish a Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). For Adults 18 years and older, the AI for Vitamin -K is 110-120 mcg (micrograms) daily for men and 90 mcg for women and those who are pregnant or lactating.

Table: Adequate Intakes (AIs) for Vitamin K

Age

Male

Female

Pregnancy

Lactation

Birth to 6 months

2.0 mcg

2.0 mcg

   

7–12 months

2.5 mcg

2.5 mcg

   

1–3 years

30 mcg

30 mcg

   

4–8 years

55 mcg

55 mcg

   

9–13 years

60 mcg

60 mcg

   

14–18 years

75 mcg

75 mcg

75 mcg

75 mcg

19+ years

120 mcg

90 mcg

90 mcg

90 mcg

Vitamin K and Health

  • Blood clots - Blood Clotting process. 
  • Bone health - Vitamin K to produce healthy bone tissue.
  • Heart disease

Food Sources

Phylloquinone

  • Green leafy vegetables including collard and turnip greens, kale, spinach, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, lettuces
  • Soybean and canola oil
  • Salad dressings made with soybean or canola oil
  • Fortified meal replacement shakes

Menaquinones

  • Natto (fermented soybeans)
  • Smaller amounts in meat, cheese, eggs 

other food sources are given in the table below : 

Table: Vitamin K (Phylloquinone, Except as Indicated) Content of following Foods

Food

Micrograms
(mcg) per
serving

Percent
DV*

Natto, 3 ounces (as MK-7)

850

708

Collards, frozen, boiled, ½ cup

530

442

Turnip greens, frozen, cooked ½ cup

426

355

Spinach, raw, 1 cup

145

121

Kale, raw, 1 cup

113

94

Broccoli, chopped, cooked, ½ cup

110

92

Soybeans, roasted, ½ cup

43

36

Carrot juice, ¾ cup

28

23

Soybean oil, one tablespoon

25

21

Edamame, frozen, prepared, ½ cup

21

18

Pumpkin, canned, ½ cup

20

17

Pomegranate juice, ¾ cup

19

16

Okra, raw, ½ cup

16

13

Salad dressing, Caesar, one tablespoon

15

13

Pine Nuts, dried, 1 ounce

15

13

Blueberries, basic, ½ cup

14

12

Iceberg lettuce, plain, 1 cup

14

12

Chicken, breast, rotisserie, 3 ounces (as MK-4)

13

11

Grapes, ½ cup

11

9

Vegetable juice cocktail, ¾ cup

10

8

Canola oil, one tablespoon

10

8

Cashews, dry roasted, 1 ounce

10

8

Carrots, raw, one medium

8

7

Olive oil, one tablespoon

8

7

Ground beef, broiled, 3 ounces (as MK-4)

6

5

Figs, dried, ¼ cup

6

5

Chicken liver, braised, 3 ounces (as MK-4)

6

5

Ham, roasted or pan-broiled, 3 ounces (as MK-4)

4

3

Cheddar cheese, 1½ ounces (as MK-4)

4

3

Mixed Nuts, dry roasted, 1 ounce

4

3

Egg, one large (as MK-4)

4

3

Mozzarella cheese, 1½ ounces (as MK-4)

2

2

Milk, 2%, 1 cup (as MK-4)

1

1

Salmon, sockeye, cooked, 3 ounces (as MK-4)

0.3

0

Shrimp, cooked, 3 ounces (as MK-4)

0.3

0

  •  *DV = Daily Value.

Signs/symptoms of Deficiency

Vitamin-K deficiency in Adults is rare but may occur in people taking medications that block Vitamin -K metabolism, such as antibiotics, or in malabsorption conditions of food and Nutrients.

 This deficiency is also possible in newborn babies because Vitamin -K does not cross the placenta, and breast milk contains a meager amount. 

The following are the most common Symptoms of a deficiency.

  • · A Longer time of bleeding after injury and more time required to clot ( a prolonged prothrombin time) 
  • · Hemorrhaging
  • · Bleeding
  • · Osteopenia or osteoporosis

Interesting Facts

  1. Antibiotic medicines can alleviate the Longtime, up to a few weeks). 
  2. People who are using Long-term antibiotics may be at greater risk for a deficiency. So they should get benefit from a Vitamin -K supplement.

You can find more Nutrition related articles. Click here

At remedyathome.com, you can find more related exciting articles.

Thank you for visiting us!

Comments

Add Your Comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *