Vitamin E (Alpha-tocopherol) image

Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol)

 

Vitamin E is an Alpha-Tocopherol and is the only one used by the human body.

  • Its leading role is to act as an Antioxidant, hunting loose electrons—so-called "free radicals molecules"—that can damage cells. 
  •  It also enhances immune function and inhibits clots from forming in heart Arteries. 
  • Vitamin E can protect cells from free radical damage and reduce the production of free radicals in certain situations.
  • It protects the body's tissues and cells from damage.

Recommended Doses (Amounts)of Vit. E

The Recommended Dietary-Allowance (RDA) for Vitamin E for males and females ages 15 years and older is 14-16 mg daily (or 22 international units, IU), including pregnant women. Lactating women need slightly more at 19-20 mg (28 IU) daily.

Table: Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol)

Age

Males

Females

Pregnancy

Lactation

0–6 months*

4 mg

4 mg

   

7–12 months*

5 mg

5 mg

   

1–3 years

6 mg

6 mg

   

4–8 years

7 mg

7 mg

   

9–13 years

11 mg

11 mg

   

14+ years

15 mg

15 mg

15 mg

19 mg

*Adequate Intake (AI)

However, high doses of Blood Clotting in animals and in-vitro data suggest that high doses protect from platelet aggregation.

Table: Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) for Vitamin E

Age

Male

Female

Pregnancy

Lactation

1–3 years

200 mg

200 mg

   

4–8 years

300 mg

300 mg

     

9–13 years

600 mg

600 mg

     

14–18 years

800 mg

800 mg

800 mg

800 mg

 

19+ years

1,000 mg

1,000 mg

1,000 mg

1,000 mg

 

Food Sources

Vitamin E is found in plant-based oils, Nuts, Fruits, vegetables, and Seeds.

Table: Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol) Content of Selected Foods

Food

Milligrams (mg)
per Serving

Percent DV*

Wheat germ oil, one tablespoon

20.3

135

Sunflower Seeds, dry roasted, 1 ounce

7.4

49

Almonds, dry roasted, 1 ounce

6.8

45

Sunflower oil, one tablespoon

5.6

37

Safflower oil, one tablespoon

4.6

31

Hazelnuts, dry roasted, 1 ounce

4.3

29

Peanut butter, two tablespoons

2.9

19

Peanuts, dry roasted, 1 ounce

2.2

15

Corn oil, one tablespoon

1.9

13

Spinach, boiled, ½ cup

1.9

13

Broccoli, chopped, boiled, ½ cup

1.2

8

Soybean oil, one tablespoon

1.1

7

Kiwifruit, one medium

1.1

7

Mango, sliced, ½ cup

0.7

5

Tomato, raw, one medium

0.7

5

Spinach, raw, 1 cup

0.6

4

*DV = Daily Value.

Signs of Deficiency

Because Vitamin E is found in various foods and Supplements (medicines), this deficiency is rare in the U.S. People who have digestive disorders or do not Absorb fat properly (e.g., cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, celiac disease) can develop a Vitamin -E deficiency. 

The following Symptoms are more common:

  • Decreased immune function
  • Retinopathy (injury to the retina of the eyes that cause impaired vision)
  • Ataxia (loss of control of body movements)
  • Peripheral neuropathy (harm to the peripheral nerves, usually in the hands or feet, causing pain and weakness)

Toxicity

Generally, the toxic effects of Supplements in healthy people. 

  • There is a risk of excessive bleeding associated with doses higher than 1000 milligrams daily or if an individual is also using a blood-thinning medicament such as warfarin. 
  • For this reason, an upper limit for Vitamin -E has been Set for Adults 19 years and older of 1000 milligrams daily (1465 IU) of any Tocopherol supplement.                                                                         "Antioxidants slow the body's aging process, and one of the roles of Vitamin E is Antioxidant.

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