Vitamin B12 - Important for human body image

Vitamin B12 - Important For Human Body

Vitamin-B12 (also referred to as cobalamin) is naturally found in animal food sources. It can also be added to nourishment or Supplements

  • Vitamin B12is needed to form red blood cells and DNA. It is also a key player in the function and development of brain and nerve cells.

Recommended Amounts (Doses):

RDA: The Recommended Dietary Allowance for men and women ages 14 years and older is 2.4 micrograms (mcg) daily. The amount (dose) increases to 2.6 mcg and 2.8 mcg daily for pregnancy and lactation, respectively.

UL: A Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is the maximum daily dose unlikely to cause adverse side effects in the general population. No upper limit has been set for Supplements of 25 mcg per day, or higher may increase the risk of bone fractures.

Table: Recommended Dietary Allowance s (RDAs) for Vitamin B12

Age

Male

Female

Pregnancy

Lactation

Birth to 6 months*

0.4 mcg

0.4 mcg

   

7–12 months*

0.5 mcg

0.5 mcg

   

1–3 years

0.9 mcg

0.9 mcg

   

4–8 years

1.2 mcg

1.2 mcg

   

9–13 years

1.8 mcg

1.8 mcg

   

14–18 years

2.4 mcg

2.4 mcg

2.6 mcg

2.8 mcg

19+ years

2.4 mcg

2.4 mcg

2.6 mcg

2.8 mcg

* Adequate Intake (AI)

Food Sources

Table: B12Content of Selected Foods

Food

Micrograms
per Serving

Percent
DV*

Beef liver, cooked, pan-fried, 3 ounces

70.7

2,944

Clams (without shells), cooked, 3 ounces

17

708

Tuna, bluefin, cooked, dry heat, 3 ounces

9.3

385

Nutritional yeast, fortified, from Several brands (check the label), about ¼ cup

8.3 to 24

346 to 1,000

Salmon, Atlantic, cooked, 3 ounces

2.6

108

Beef, ground, 85% lean meat/15% fat, pan-browned, 3 ounces

2.4

100

Milk, 2% milkfat, 1 cup

1.3

54

Yogurt, plain, fat-free, 6-ounce container

1.0

43

Breakfast Cereals, fortified with 25% of the DV for Vitamin B12, 1 Serving

0.6

25

Cheese, cheddar, 1½ ounces

0.5

19

Egg, whole, cooked, one large

0.5

19

Turkey, breast meat, roasted, 3 ounces

0.3

14

Tempeh, 1/2 cup

0.1

3

Banana, one medium

0.0

0

Bread, whole wheat, one slice

0.0

0

Strawberries, raw, halved, 1/2 cup

0.0

0

Beans, kidney, boiled, 1/2 cup

0.0

0

Spinach, boiled, drained, 1/2 cup

0.0

0

*DV = Daily Value.

Signs of Deficiency and Toxicity

Deficiency 

Measuring Vitamin -B12 in the blood (serum) is not the best way to determine whether someone is deficient. Blood levels of methylmalonic acid mean a protein breakdown product, and homocysteine is the better marker that captures real B12deficiency.

Factors that may cause B12deficiency:

  • They are avoiding animal products. People who do not eat meat, fish, poultry, or dairy are at risk of becoming deficient in B12since it is only found naturally in animal products. 
  • Lack of intrinsic factor. Pernicious B12to be Absorbed.
  • Inadequate stomach acid or medications that cause decreased stomach acid. A much more common cause of B12from food. 
  • Intestinal surgeries or digestive disorders that cause malabsorption. Surgeries that affect the stomach where intrinsic factor is made, or the ileum (the last portion of the small intestine) where B12is Absorbed, can increase the risk of a deficiency. Certain diseases, including Crohn's and celiac disease, that negatively impact the digestive tract also increase the risk of poverty.

Signs of deficiency may include:

  • Megaloblastic Anemia —a condition of more significant than average sized red blood cells and a smaller than average amount; this occurs because there is not enough Vitamin -B12 in the diet or poor Absorption
  • Pernicious Anemia —is a type of megaloblastic B12is not Absorbed.
  • Fatigue, weakness
  • Dementia
  • Nerve damage with numbness and tingling in the hands and legs.
  • Memory loss, confusion
  • Seizures
  • Depression

Toxicity 

Vitamin-B12 is a water-soluble Vitamin, so any unused amount will eliminate from the body through the urine. Generally, up to 1000 micrograms, a day of an oral tablet to treat a deficiency, is considered Safe. The Institute of Medicine states that "no adverse effects have been associated with excess Supplements in healthy individuals." However, it is important not to start a high-dosage supplement without first checking with your doctor. 

Treatment

  • Suppose you have pernicious Vitamin at first. You may need to keep getting these shots, take high doses of a supplement by mouth, or get it nasally after that.
  • If you don't eat animal products, you can change your diet to include B12if you are deficient.
  • Older Adults with a B12supplement or a multivitamin containing B12.

For most people, treatment resolves the problem. But, any nerve damage due to the deficiency could be permanent.

Prevention

  • Suppose you don't consume animal products or have a medical condition that limits how well your body Absorbs Nutrients. In that case, you can take Vitamin -B12 in a multivitamin or other supplement (medicines) and foods fortified with Vitamin B12.
  • Most people can prevent Vitamin -B12 deficiency by eating enough meat, poultry, Seafood, dairy products, and eggs.

If you choose to take Vitamin -B12 Supplements, let your doctor know, so they can tell you how much you need or ensure they won't affect any medicines you're taking.

Interesting Facts

A B Anemia if present. 

People who eat a vegan diet are often told to include Brewer or Nutritional yeast for its vitamins and will only be present if fortified with it. 

Nori (purple laver), the dried edible Seaweed used to make sushi rolls, is sometimes promoted as a plant source of Vitamin B12, but the amount varies among types of Seaweed, with some having none. Therefore is not considered a reliable food source.

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