Vitamin B complex -  scientific name, sources, dose requirements and deficiencies image

Vitamin B Complex - Scientific Name, Sources, Dose Requirements And Deficiencies

Vitamin B1

Other name : Thiamin eor Thiamin

Sources :

Thiamin is found naturally in whole grains, meats, Fish, etc. It is also added to slices of bread, Cereals, and baby formulas.

  • Fortified breakfast Cereals
  • Pork
  • Fishbein's, lentils
  • Green peas
  • Enriched grains, bread, noodles, rice
  • Sunflower Seeds
  • Yogurt

Importance and other Facts: 

  • It is a water-soluble Vit. Found naturally in some foods.
  • Thiamin plays a crucial role in the growth and function of various cells. Because of Nutrients for energy, a deficiency can lead to numerous problems in the brain and heart that require a constant supply of energy.  
  • Thiamin (or Thiamine) is destroyed with high-heat cooking or Longcooking times. It also leaches into the surrounding water and will be lost in any cooking or soaking water is thrown out.
  • It may also be destroyed during food processing, such as with refined rice and white bread.

Recommended dose :

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) 

  • for men ages 18 and older is 1.2 mg(milligrams) daily 
  • for women ages 18 and more senior is 1.1 mg daily 
  • for pregnancy and lactation women, the amount increases to 1.4 mg daily.

Signs/symptoms of deficiency :

Symptoms appearing with mild to moderate deficiency:

  • Weight loss
  • Confusion, memory loss
  • Muscle weakness
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Lowered Immunity

A more Severe lack can lead to... 

  • beriberi --causes muscle loss and peripheral neuropathy
  • peripheral neuropathy --diminished feeling in the hands and feet. 

Vitamin B2

Another name: Riboflavin

Sources :

Riboflavin is found mainly in meat and fortified foods but also in some Nuts and green vegetables.

  • Dairy milk and other milk products
  • Fish, meat, and Poultry
  • Yogurt
  • Cheese
  • Eggs
  • Lean Beef and Pork
  • Chicken breast
  • Salmon Fish
  • Fortified cereal and bread
  • Sweet potatoes
  • Almonds and other Nuts
  • Organ meats (beef liver)
  • Cruciferous vegetables, such as spinach, Broccoli, Brussels sprouts
  • Organ meats (beef liver) 
  • Lima beans, navy beans, and peas

Recommended dose :

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or doses for men and women ages 19+ years is 1.3 mg and 1.1 mg daily, respectively. For pregnancy and lactation, the amount(dose) increases to 1.4 mg and 1.6 mg daily, respectively.

Importance and other Facts:

  • Vitamin B2 is a water-soluble Vitamin, most of which is absorbed in the small intestine. 
  • Excess dietary Riboflavin, usually from Supplements, can cause urine to become bright yellow.
  • Riboflavin is a crucial component of coenzymes involved with the growth of cells, energy production, and the breakdown of fats, steroids, and medications.
  • Vitamin B2(Riboflavin) helps break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.
  • Riboflavin helps convert carbohydrates into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The body produces ATP from food, and ATP has energy as per the requirements of the body.

Signs/symptoms of deficiency :

  • Cracks at the corners of the mouth - Angular cheilitis
  • Cracked lips
  • Anemia
  • Dry skin and skin rash
  • Inflammation inside the mouth and throat
  • Inflammation of the tongue (glossitis)
  • Mouth ulcers
  • Red lips
  • Sore throat
  • Scrotal Dermatitis
  • Hair loss
  • Itchy, watery, or bloodshot red eyes may be sensitive to bright light

Severe deficiency leads to Cataracts.

Vitamin B3

Another name: Niacin

Sources :

This deficiency is scarce because it is found in many foods, both in animals and plants.

  • Red meat: Beef, beef liver, Pork
  • Poultry
  • Fish
  • Brown rice
  • Fortified Cereals and bread
  • Nuts, Seeds
  • Bananas 

Importance of other Facts:

  • Niacin (vit. B3) is a water-soluble B Vitamin found naturally in some foods, added to foods, and sold as a supplement. 
  • The two forms of Supplements are 1) nicotinic acid and 2) nicotinamide. 
  • The body can also get nicotinamide by converting it from tryptophan (an amino acid).
  • Niacin is water soluble, so excess amounts the body does not need are excreted in the urine.
  • Niacin works in the body as a coenzyme, with more than 400 enzymes dependent on it for various chemical processes.
  • Niacin helps to convert Antioxidant effects.
  • Corn has high Niacin, but it is bound to carbohydrates, making it challenging to Absorb. However, when Corn is treated with Niacin becomes Absorbable.

Recommended dose :

Niacin is measured in Niacin or 60 mg of tryptophan. 

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) 

  • for men above 18 years -16 mg NE
  • for women above 18 years - 18 mg NE
  • for pregnant women -18mg NE 
  • for lactating women - 18 mg NE

Signs/symptoms of deficiency :

General signs of Severe Niacin deficiency include:

  • Depression
  • Headache
  • Fatigue
  • Memory loss
  • Hallucinations

A Severe lack leads to pellagra(a condition that causes a dark, scaly rash to develop on skin areas under exposure to sunlight; bright redness of the tongue; and Constipation /diarrhea.

Vitamin B5

Another name: Pantothenic Acid

Sources :

Pantothenic acid (vit. B5) is found in almost all plant and animal foods because this Vitamin is found in all living cells. 

But the best sources are Beef, chicken, organ meats, fortified Cereals, and some vegetables.

  • Fortified Cereals
  • Organ meats (Liver, kidney)
  • Beef
  • Chicken breast
  • Mushrooms
  • Avocado
  • Nuts, Seeds
  • Dairy milk
  • Yogurt
  • Potatoes
  • Eggs
  • Brown rice
  • Oats
  • Broccoli

Importance and other Facts:

  • Pantothenic acid (vit.B5) is sold as a supplement purported to help so many conditions like allergies, dandruff, leg cramps, Arthritis, etc.
  • It is used to make coenzyme A (CoA). This chemical compound helps enzymes to build and break down fatty acids, so it has helped in reducing cholesterol levels in people who are suffering from dyslipidemia (this is a condition of abnormally high concentration of lipids in the blood (e.g., LDL (bad cholesterol, triglycerides) and low levels of HDL(good cholesterol).

Recommended dose :

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) 

  • for men and women aged above 19 years is 5 mg daily
  • for pregnancy and lactation, the amount increases to 6 - 7 mg daily.

Signs/symptoms of deficiency :

Symptoms of deficiency may include:

  • Headache
  • Nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps
  • Fatigue
  • Irritability, restlessness
  • Disturbed sleep
  • Muscle cramps
  • Numbness or burning sensation in hands as well as feet

Vitamin B6

Another name: pyridoxine

Sources :

Vitamin B6 is found in animal and plant foods.

  • Beef liver
  • Tuna and Salmon
  • Fortified Cereals
  • Chickpeas and Poultry
  • Some vegetables and Fruits, incredibly dark leafy greens, bananas, papayas, oranges,

Importance and other Facts:

  • The measurement of Vit. B6 in the blood is done with the size of Pyridoxal 5' phosphate (the active coenzyme form)
  • This coenzyme assists more than a hundred enzymes in performing various functions, including the breakdown of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, maintaining homocysteine levels, and supporting immune function and brain health. 

Recommended dose :

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) 

  • for men ages above 14 years is 1.3 mg daily; for those above 50 years, 1.7 mg 

  • for women ages above 14 years is 1.3 mg; and for those above 50 years is 1.5 mg and

  • For pregnancy and lactation, the amount(dose) increases to 2.0 mg

Signs/symptoms of deficiency :

 A Severe lack can exhibit the following...

  • Microcytic Anemia
  • Skin conditions
  • Depression
  • Confusion
  • Lowered Immunity

Vitamin B7

Another name: Biotin

Sources :

  • Beef liver
  • Eggs (cooked)
  • Salmon
  • Avocados
  • Pork
  • Sweet potato
  • Nuts, Seeds

Importance and other Facts:

  • Biotin is crucial in assisting enzymes in breaking down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, in food. 
  • It also regulates signals Sent by cells and the activity of genes.
  • Those who frequently consume raw eggs may want to reconsider an extra dose of this Biotin and inhibit Absorption. This problem is not Seen with cooked eggs because avidin is broken down when heated.

Recommended dose :

  • for men and women above 18 years is 30 micrograms daily
  • for pregnant women is 30 micrograms daily
  • for lactating women is 35 micrograms daily.

Signs/symptoms of deficiency :

Symptoms appearing with a Biotin deficiency:

  • Thinning hair
  • Scaly skin rashes around the eyes, nose, mouth
  • Brittle nails

Vitamin B9

Another name: Folic Acid, Folate

Sources :

Good sources of Folate include:

  • Green leafy vegetables (Broccoli, turnip greens, spinach, romaine lettuce, asparagus, Brussels sprouts)
  • Liver
  • Seafood
  • Beans
  • Peanuts
  • Sunflower Seeds
  • Fresh Fruits, Fruit juices
  • Whole grains
  • Eggs
  • Fortified foods and Supplements

Importance and other Facts:

  • Folate is the natural form of Vitamin -B9 and water-soluble. 
  • This form of Folic Acid is better Absorbed from food sources up to 85%.
  •  Folate helps to form DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid and RNA(Rebo nucleic acid) and is involved in protein metabolism. 
  • It is essential in breaking down homocysteine, an amino acid whose high amount can induce detrimental effects on the body. 
  • Folate is also needed to produce healthy RBC(red blood cells) and is essential for the rapid growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

Recommended dose :

The Recommended Dietary-Allowance 

  • for men and women ages above 19 years- 400 mcg DFE(dietary Folate equivalent)
  • Pregnant and lactating women require 600 mcg DFE(dietary Folate equivalent).

Signs/symptoms of deficiency :

These Symptoms include : 

  • Megaloblastic Folate in the diet or poor Absorption that produces less red blood cells and is more significant than average);
  •  weakness, fatigue,
  • irregular heartbeat,
  • shortness of breath,
  • difficulty concentrating,
  •  hair loss,
  • pale skin,
  • mouth sores

Vitamin B12

Another name: Cobalamin

Sources :

  • Dairy products such as milk, cheese, yogurt,
  • Fish, shellfish,
  • Liver,
  • Red meat,
  • Eggs
  • Poultry,
  • Fortified Nutritional yeast,
  • Fortified breakfast Cereals

Importance and other Facts:

  • Vitamin-B12, or cobalamin, is naturally found in animal foods.
  • Vitamin-B12 is needed to form red blood cells(RBC) and DNA and is a critical player in the function of the brain and nerve tissue.
  • Vitamin-B12 binds to the protein in the foods when we eat. In the stomach, HCL- hydrochloric acid and enzymes unbind Vitamin -B12 into its free form. After that, it combines with a protein called intrinsic factor, which can be absorbed from the small intestine.
  • Vitamin -B12 supplements are available like a tablet, sublingual tablets, injections, pills, etc.

In cases of Severe Vitamin -B12 deficiency due to inadequate intrinsic factors (pernicious Anemia ), doctors may prescribe B12injections in the muscle.

Recommended dose :

The Recommended Dietary-Allowance 

  • for men and women aged over 14 years, it is 2.4 micrograms (mcg) daily
  • For pregnancy and lactation, the amount(quantity) increases from 2.6 mcg to 2.8 mcg daily

Signs/symptoms of deficiency :

Signs of weakness may include:

  • Pernicious Anemia —is a type of megaloblastic Anemia -- caused by a lack of intrinsic factors
  • Megaloblastic Anemia —is a condition of more significant than average-sized red blood cells(RBC) and less amount
  • Seizures,
  • Dementia,
  • Fatigue, weakness,
  • Nerve damage with numbness, tingling in the peripheral organ
  • Memory loss and Confusion,
  • Depression

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