Basic information about vitamin and minerals image

Basic Information About Vitamin And Minerals

Basic knowledge of Vitamins and Minerals

Vitamins and Minerals are also known as Micronutrients.

Routinely, your body produces skin, bones, and muscles. It churns out rich red blood cells that carry nutrients and oxygen to remote organs and Sends nerve signals between body and brain pathways. It also makes chemical messengers that shuttle from one organ to another, issuing the instructions that help sustain life.

To do this, your body requires some raw materials like Vitamins and Minerals. These include at least 30 Minerals, Vitamins, and dietary components that your body needs but cannot manufacture on its own in sufficient amounts.

Vitamins and Immune System shore up bones, heal wounds, convert food into energy, and repair cellular damage.

Micronutrients with a significant role in the body

Vitamins and Minerals are called micronutrients because your body needs only tiny amounts. But failing to get even those small quantities virtually guarantees disease. Here are a few examples of illnesses due to Vitamin -deficiencies :

  • Scurvy. Ancient Sailors learned that living for months without fresh Vitamin C—causes bleeding Gums, i.e.scurvy.
  • Blindness. In some developing countries, people still become blind due to Vitamin A deficiency.
  • Rickets. Vitamin D deficiency (calciferol) can cause Rickets, a condition in which bones become soft and weak.

Just as a lack of critical micronutrients can cause substantial harm to your body, getting sufficient quantities can provide a considerable benefit. Some examples of these benefits:

  • Strong bones. A combination of Calcium, Phosphorus protects your bones against fractures.
  • Prevents congenital disabilities. Taking Supplements early in pregnancy helps prevent offspring's brain and congenital spinal disabilities.
  • Healthy teeth. The mineral fluoride helps bone formation and keeps dental cavities from starting or worsening.

Vitamins are Vitamins unused by the body that is primarily lost through urine.

Water-soluble Vitamins

B Vitamins

  • Thiamin (vitamin B1)
  • Riboflavin (vitamin B2)
  • Niacin (vitamin B3)
  • Pantothenic Acid (vitamin B5)
  • Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)
  • Biotin (vitamin B7)
  • Folic acid (folate, Vitamin B9)
  • Vitamin B12

Vitamin C

Fat-soluble Vitamins

  • Vitamin A (retinol)
  • Vitamin D (calciferol)
  • Vitamin E (tocopherol)
  • VitamiMenadionedione)

Minerals are inorganic elements in soil and water, consumed by animals or Absorbed by plants. While you are familiar with Calcium, Sodium, and Potassium, a range of other Minerals, including trace Minerals (e.g., copper, iodine, and Zinc), are needed in minimal amounts (trace).

The National Academy of Medicine, U.S., develops nutrient reference values known as the Dietary Reference-Intakes (DRIs) for Vitamins and Minerals. These are intended as a guide for good nutrition and a scientific basis for developing food guidelines in Canada and the U.S. The DRIs are specific to gender, age, and life stages and cover more than 40 nutrient substances.

Recommended Daily Intake of Minerals for Adults

Vitamin (Common Names)

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Daily Adequate Intake (AI)*

Upper Limit

Women

Men

Vitamin-A (pre-formed = Retinol ; Vitamin A)

700 mcg (2,333 IU)

900 mcg (3,000 IU)

3,000 mcg (about 10,000 IU)

Thiamin (vitamin-B1)

1.1 mg

1.2 mg

Not known

Riboflavin (vitamin B2)

1.1 mg

1.3 mg

Not known

Niacin (vitamin-B3; nicotinic acid)

14 mg

16 mg

35 mg

Pantothenic Acid (vitamin-B5)

5 mg*

5 mg*

Not known

Vitamin-B6 (pyridoxal, Pyridoxine , pyridoxamine)

Ages 19-50: 1.3 mg

Ages 51+: 1.5 mg

Ages 19-50: 1.3 mg

Ages 51+: 1.7 mg

100 mg

Biotin (vitamin-B7)

30 mg*

30 mg*

Not known

Folate (Folic acid; Vitamin -B9)

400 mcg

400 mcg

1,000 mcg

Vitamin-B12

2.4 mcg

2.4 mcg

Not known

Vitamin-C

75 mg*

(Smokers add 35 mg)

90 mg*

(Smokers add 35 mg)

2,000 mg

Choline

425 mg*

550 mg*

3,500 mg

Vitamin-D (calciferol)

Ages 19-50: 15 mcg (600 IU)

Ages 51-70: 15 mcg (600 IU)

Ages 71+: 20 mcg (800 IU)

Ages 19-50: 15 mg (600 IU)

Ages 51-70: 15 mcg (600 IU)

Ages 71+: 20 mcg (800 IU)

100 mcg (4,000 IU)

Vitamin-E (alpha-tocopherol)

15 mg

15 mg

1,000 mg

Vitamin-K (phylloquinMenadioneione )

90 mcg*

120 mcg*

Not known

Mineral

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Daily Adequate Intake (AI)*

Upper Limit

Women

Men

Calcium

Ages 31-50: 1,000 mg

Ages 51+: 1,200 mg

Ages 31-50: 1,000 mg

Ages 51+: 1,200 mg

2,500 mg

Chloride

Ages 19-50: 2.3 g*

Ages 51-70: 2.0 g*

Ages 71+: 1.8 g*

Ages 19-50: 2.3 g*

Ages 51-70: 2.0 g*

Ages 71+: 1.8 g*

Not known

Chromium

Ages 31-50: 25 mcg*

Ages 51+: 20 mcg*

Ages 31-50: 35 mcg*

Ages 51+: 30 mcg*

Not known

Copper

900 mcg

900 mcg

10,000 mcg

Fluoride

3 mg

4 mg

10 mg

Iodine

150 mcg

150 mcg

1,100 mcg

Iron

Ages 31-50: 18 mg

Ages 51+: 8 mg

Ages 31-50: 8 mg

Ages 51+: 8 mg

45 mg

Magnesium

Ages 19-30: 310 mg

Ages 31-70+: 320 mg

Ages 19-30: 400 mg

Ages 31-70+: 420 mg

350 milligrams (from Supplements )

Manganese

1.8 mg*

2.3 mg*

11 mg

Molybdenum

45 mcg

45 mcg

2,000 mcg

Phosphorus

700 mg

700 mg

Ages 31-70: 4,000 mg

Ages 71+: 3,000 mg

Potassium

Ages 14-18: 2,300 mg

Ages 19+: 2,600 mg*

Ages 14-18: 3,000 mg*

Ages 19+: 3,400 mg*

Not known

Selenium

55 mcg

55 mcg

400 mcg

Sodium

1,500 mg*

1,500 mg*

Not determined;

Zinc

8 mg

11 mg

40 mg

= Adequate-Intake (AI), mg = milligrams, mcg = micrograms, g = grams.

 An Adequate-Intake (AI) is a recommended intake when a Rdais the average daily dietary intake sufficient to get the nutrient requirement of 95-97% of healthy individuals in a specific group according to the stage of life and gender.

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