Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome ( PCOS ) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of childbearing potential. It affects about 1 in 10 women worldwide, and according to research, the prevalence rate ranges between 6-18%, depending on the diagnostic criteria used.
The diagnosis of Pcosrequires the presence of 2 of the following Characteristics: oligo-ovulation or anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and morphology of polycystic ovaries.
PCOS can affect reproductive, metabolic, and mental health. At the same time, research has shown that 40-80% of women with Ptosis are also associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 Diabetes.
Many women with Pcospresent insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia, and elevated body mass index (BMI). Despite lifestyle Changes, they often find it difficult to control their weight and improve their IR.
Although Pcosalso has metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance.
The heterogeneity of the Pcosrequires the treatment to be individualized, depending on the clinical picture and the needs of each woman. Lifestyle intervention (diet, Exercise, sleep, psychology) is the most basic approach, as it can regulate menstruation, reduce hyperandrogenism & IR, and improve quality of life with no side effects.
Regarding the pharmaceutical approach, contraceptives are usually administered to regulate the cycle and reduce Acne& Hair Growth. Often, however, they are contraindicated due to the occurrence of various side effects.
There is insufficient high-quality data to support the effectiveness of dietary Supplements in women with PCOS. There is some positive feedback on inositol supplements and Tea or nutritional Supplements.
Nutrition and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
It is evident that unhealthy dietary patterns, in addition to their effects on inflammation levels and insulin resistance, negatively affect body composition and worsen the Symptoms and Severity of Pcos.
According to a study published in 2020, adhering to a balanced diet or a carefully designed hypocaloric diet plan, in cases where Pcospresent.
It is recommended to consume frequent and small meals, foods from all groups, low glycemic index carbohydrates, and good fats, and simultaneously avoid simple carbohydrates and Saturated fatty acids. Indicatively, it is recommended to frequently consume fruits and vegetables, whole grains, Legumes, unsalted nuts, fish, and lean meat, while avoiding fast food, sweet & Savory snacks, fried foods, and large meals.
Mediterranean Diet (MD) and PCOS
In a study published in 2019, it appeared that women with Nutsin had smaller quantities than women without PCOS, but also compared to the recommendations of the Mediterranean Diet.
It has also been shown that women with Pcosconsume significant amounts of simple carbohydrates and Saturated fatty acids (SFAs). In contrast, they rarely consume complex carbohydrates, fiber, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) compared to other women.
The Mediterranean Diet is one of the ideal dietary patterns for health promotion, contributing to the prevention and treatment of various pathological conditions.
The Mediterranean Diet is characterized, among other things, by the frequent consumption of complex carbohydrates, good fats, Diabetes & cardiovascular disease.
Ketogenic Diet (KD) and PCOS
In KD, the carbohydrates are lower than 30 gr per day or represent 5% of total energy intake, with a relative increase in protein and fat ratios.
A study published in 2020 investigating the potential beneficial effects of KD in women with Pcosshowed that KD could be a short-term therapeutic approach, as it led to a significant reduction in body weight, free testosterone, and fasting insulin.
This study suggests that after short-time adherence to a KD, a balanced diet should follow with attention to the quantity and quality of carbohydrates. Although the KD could be followed for long periods, the available data are insufficient in terms of Security at the moment.
Carbohydrate Intake and Pcos
Qualitatively & quantitatively balanced carbohydrate intake seems to have a beneficial effect on Several aspects of Symptoms in women concerned.
In a study published in 2019, it was found that a diet low in carbohydrates (LCD) significantly improves Body Mass Index (BMI), lipid profile, and insulin resistance (IR) in women with PCOS.
This study also showed that a Long-term diet low in carbohydrates and fats could lead to significant Weight Loss, improve glucose & lipid levels and reduce IR.
Dietary Fiber Intake and Pcos
According to a study published in 2019, fiber intake in women with PCOS is inversely related to insulin resistance, glucose tolerance, and testosterone levels.
High glycemic load and low fiber intake appear to contribute to IR and obesity. In addition, low fiber intake may contribute to hyperandrogenemia.
High fat & high sugar diet and PCOS
The crucial role that diet plays in Pcoswas caused in rats through a diet high in fat and sugar.
This means that a diet high in fat and sugar affects the morphology of the ovaries and can cause the formation of polycystic ovaries. This diet led to metabolic disorders and dysfunction of the reproductive system, Characterized by an abnormal menstrual cycle and ovaries with polycystic morphology.
Herbs and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Herbal medicine can be used as a complementary or alternative treatment for PCOS, as it presents promising results and a very high degree of acceptance.
Numerous PcosSymptoms, such as oligomenorrhea and difficulty conceiving. However, further studies are needed to investigate their mechanisms of action in terms of Safety from Long-term use.
According to a 2017 study conducted on overweight women with Pcos, almost all wanted to follow a Herbal treatment to relieve the Pcosinstead of a pharmacological approach (e.g., contraceptives).
Research has shown significant improvements when using a combination of Symptoms of Pcos. There was a decrease in the number of days of the menstrual cycle, an improvement in anthropometric data, glycemic profile, blood pressure, conception rates & quality of life (reduction of depression & anxiety).
The following is a summary of the types and actions of some of the most studied Symptoms of Pcos.
- Vitex Agnus-Castus: It has been widely studied for its beneficial effects in women with PCOS. It seems to improve hormone levels (decrease prolactin, increase FSH) and helps manage oligomenorrhea & Infertility associated with PCOS.
- Paeonia lactiflora (Chinese peony): Paeonia lactiflora appears to reduce elevated levels of androgens (testosterone) and regulate estrogen and prolactin levels. It is used to treat Infertility associated with PCOS, hyperprolactinemia, endometriosis, and hyperandrogenemia. It is taken alone or in combination with other Herbs, such as Glycyrrhiza spp. and Cinnamomum Cassia, for optimal results in managing PCOS.
- Asparagus Racemosus (Shatavari): Shatavari is traditionally used in Indian medicine (Ayurveda). It helps regulate the menstrual cycle and contributes to the treatment of hyperinsulinemia while supporting the health of the female reproductive system thanks to its phytoestrogens (estrogens of plant origin).
- Cimicifuga racemosa or Actaea racemosa (Black Cohosh): Black Cohosh is a Herbknown since antiquity for its beneficial effect on the female reproductive system. It significantly improves conditions such as anovulation/oligo-ovulation, Infertility, and hormonal imbalance, which are essential aspects of Pcos.
- Glycyrrhiza (Liquorice): Glycyrrhiza root can be used to reduce unwanted Pcosmanagement involves the combined use of Glycyrrhiza spp. and Paeonia lactiflora.
- Foeniculum vulgare: Seeds are often used as a dietary supplement to manage PCOS. They are a rich source of phytoestrogens and help reduce insulin resistance & inflammation in women with PCOS.
- Ocimum tenuiflorum (Holy Basil): Holy Basil is a traditional Herbal remedy, possibly beneficial for Pcos. It has anti-androgenic properties and can help manage obesity and its complications.
- Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a Symptom of menopause, as it balances hormone levels without causing side effects. Based on the above, it could also contribute to PCOS.
- Grifola frondosa (Maitake Mushroom) is widely used for its beneficial properties. It helps regulate blood glucose levels and enhances insulin Sensitivity.
- Several studies have also reported the beneficial effects of the Cassia & Tribulus Terrestris on hormone levels and the reproductive health of women with PCOS.
Physical Activity and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
PCOS management typically focuses on lifestyle Changes to improve Diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle intervention is proven to be the Safest solution for improving the clinical picture of Pcos.
In a study published in 2019, it appeared that adequate & regular Exercise improves the overall physical and mental health of women with PCOS. In particular, there was an improvement in lipid levels, IR, fasting glucose, and mood. These favorable Changes were more significant for the overweight and obese people who participated in the study.
Interventions that include increased physical activity, healthy dietary patterns, and calorie restriction have been shown to improve women's metabolic and reproductive health.
Weight Reduction and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Women with PCOS usually have increased BMI and visceral fat due to high androgen levels. They often present atherogenic lipid profiles and metabolic abnormalities, especially in cases of overweight.
It has been shown that 5-10% Weight Loss significantly improves the clinical picture of women with PCOS. In particular, it can improve ovarian function, increase pregnancy rates, and lower IR and testosterone levels.
According to some studies, despite significant differences in BMI, total caloric intake and level of physical activity do not differ between women with and without PCOS.
However, in a 2016 study comparing the Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) of women with and without PCOS, it appeared that there was no significant difference; therefore, in terms of energy metabolism, women with Lose Weight if they wish.
The above research also showed that women with PCOS are very concerned about their body weight, which is one of the unpleasant effects of this syndrome on women's psychology.
In addition to dietary and physical activity interventions, it is essential to have psychological support and healthy motivation to make the various Changes. Goals should be Set, and any relapse into older – unhealthy – habits should be prevented.