Is lumpy (cow) skin disease a virus?
Background: Lumpy Skin Disease Virus, capripoxvirus, family poxviridae, was recently (2018-2019- present) exhibiting its characteristic zoonosis [animal to human]. Moreover, the person-to-person direct transmission [infectious disease] was record.
Materials and Methods: Whole blood & tissue samples from skin nodules were collected from infected persons. Lumpy skin disease virus was isolated on BHK-21 cell culture and pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs (CAM). The diagnosis was confirmed by conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction, partial sequencing using the primers target gene ORF103 & Negative staining, and direct electron microscopic examination.
Results: Lumpy skin disease virus was successfully isolated from blood and skin nodules collected from infected persons. The conventional PCR and sequencing procedures achieved a confirmed diagnosis. These isolates were genetically characterized as Lumpy skin disease virus(LSDV) isolate Evros/GR/15 by partial sequence with 99 % identity. Meanwhile, Lumy skin disease virus virions and herpes virus particles were visualized by electron microscopic investigations (NS-DEM). Most LSD virions were non-enveloped, showing Mulberry forms, some capsular forms, and enveloped ones. Herpes virions were also detected in large numbers, the surrounded and the non-enveloped. The apparent pathogenesis of infected humans is comparatively similar to Lumpy skin disease in cattle; however, the progress of illness & stages of the disease depends on the level of health care interventions unless the nature of human biology is significantly different from that of cattle.
Conclusions: Lumpy skin disease virus can infect humans with direct transmission without the need for an insect vector, most probably by inhalation and certainly by direct contact with infected materials, infected persons [man to man], and as laboratory-acquired infection. LSDV causes skin nodules and may lead to death in cases of generalized disorders involving internal organs. However, it was evident that the Herpes virus gives hands and helps poxviruses during their pathogenesis in the infected subjects.
- DEM: Direct electron microscope.
- LSDV; lumpy skin disease virus.
- LSDVh: lumpy skin disease in humans.
- NS: negative staining.
- PCR, polymerase chain reaction.
- HHSV; human herpes simplex virus.
- M form; Mulberry form.
- AHRI; animal health research institute.
Materials & methods
1-Biological specimens: Blood samples & infected skin specimens were collected from infected persons (10). PTA (Phosphotungestic Acid) preliminary identification was performed with negative staining for Transmission Electron Microscopy. The procedures were performed according to Payment.
2-Isolation of LSDVh: LSDV from human samples was performed using BHK-21 [baby hamster kidney cells], an optimum temperature of 38 ºC, according to Payment. These isolates were kept in -80 deep freezing & given specific abbreviations; [LSDV, 2018-2019].
3- Convalescent anti-LSDV positive sera: Sera samples were collected from some convalescent human subjects who recovered from Lumpy skin disease virus H infections. These sera were tested by reference Lumpy skin disease virus and showed a satisfied titer of antibodies. These positive sera were helpful in the rapid diagnosis of new cases of Lumpy skin disease h.
4- Electron microscopic examinations and Transmission EM: The procedures were performed. At Cairo University. Direct electron microscopic examination by negative staining is a rapid method to demonstrate poxvirus in original unpurified biological specimens & samples by direct negative staining—test procedures: Direct electron microscopy. The initial biological specimens were re-suspended in 50 µL of phosphate-buffered saline pH 7.2. 1 drop of the suspension was put on the EM grid and submitted to a negative staining technique with 2% potassium phosphotungstate pH 6.4. The grids were examined & the viruses were documented in a Philips EM400-T electron microscope operating system at 80 kV. NS-DEM analyzed all samples. LSD virions have the characteristic morphology of the poxviridae family; large, enveloped, pleomorphic, brick-shaped appearance with irregularly arranged, short surface filaments. The procedures performed.
5-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Assays: conventional method
traction of genomic DNA: The supernatant of prepared scabs samples was collected for viral DNA extraction using Viral DNA Extraction Kit, according to manufacturer instructions & then used as a template in PCR.
Clinically symptoms: First symptoms were fatigue, weight loss, fever & itching in areas where nodules would erupt; some cases showed herpes lesions preceding the appearance of the skin nodules; these nodules were unique & never resembled abscesses. Some patients' disease symptoms were aggressive, as the body and legs were severely affected with numerous nodules and ulcerations. During the progress of LSD in humans, the skin nodules spread all over the body. The painful skin lesions are due to the severe edema that developed inside the affected areas, which characterize the disease in humans [LSDVh].
You can find more Micro-organism related articles. Click here
At remedyathome.com, you can find more related exciting articles.
Thank you for visiting us.