What is Overtraining?

Although regular Exercise is associated with multiple benefits for the body's overall health, sometimes, our body is exhausted due to demanding competition goals or some external factors.

The Overtraining of athletes is an issue that concerns not only those involved in the Championship but also those who train and train as amateurs.

The World Health Organization defines Overtraining as leading to prolonged fatigue and poor athletic performance."

How is Overtraining caused?

Overtraining, in medical terminology, has been used in the Sense of overloading, Overreaching, and overtraining syndrome.

More simply, when after days of hard training, there is brief fatigue, then we are talking about overload. This is perfectly normal. Thus, this process is followed by overfilling, where we have an improvement in athletic performance. More specifically, the replenishment will prepare your body for the next workout. With a healthy and proper diet and rest in between Exercises s, your body manages to replenish what you need without reaching extremes.

When an athlete does not Adapt before the next stimulus, i.e., when he does not get enough rest, when he is under intense Stress, or does not eat properly, the body does not manage to complete the overfilling, which leads to overexertion. At this point, the fatigue is unpredictably high, and the performance is significantly reduced. If the duration and intensity of training are not reduced, then overexertion leads to Overtraining syndrome due to this disruption of the training-rehabilitation cycle.

If acute Overtraining is not diagnosed in time and the athlete does not get enough rest, the condition turns into a chronic pathological disorder leading to overtraining syndrome.

What are its forms?

Overtraining may be of a sympathetic or parasympathetic type and, depending on the branch of the nervous system, has led to fatigue. The friendly kind of Symptoms has not been fully established.

What is the pathophysiology behind Overtraining?

There are several theories as to how (microscopically) Overtraining is caused:

Glycogen Hypothesis: Low muscle glycogen can reduce athletic performance due to a lack of "fuel" for the workload. In addition, low muscle glycogen resulted in increased oxidation. It decreased concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in the body, resulting in a Change in the composition of the central neurotransmitters involved in recovery, resulting in fatigue.

Glutamine Supplement: Glutamine is an integral part of the functioning of the cells of the Immune System. It also plays a role in DNA / RNA synthesis, nitrogen transport, gluconeogenesis, and acid-base balance. Glutamine stores after strenuous Exercise may decrease, which may be responsible for recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, resulting in Severe fatigue and extremely reduced performance.

Hypothalamic Hypothesis: Changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axons may be responsible for Overtraining. Endurance athletes may experience subtle Changes in HPA axis function, and over-trained athletes may experience Changes in Cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, testosterone, and other hormones.

What are the Symptoms of Overtraining?

The main Symptoms are:

  • Reduction of athletic performance.
  • Psychological transition-depression.
  • Frequent headaches.
  • Increased feeling of thirst.
  • Increase recovery time after Exercise (heart rate remains above 100 beats per minute for 10 minutes).
  • Decreased neuromuscular coordination results in significant loss of motor skills, often manifested by first-time technical errors and musculoskeletal injuries.
  • Increased irritability
  • Menstrual disorders.
  • Reduction of muscle strength.
  • Digestive disorders (indigestion, Constipation ).
  • Increased feeling of fatigue.
  • Sleep Disorders.
  • Susceptibility to Viruses and bacteria.
  • Increase in basal metabolic rate.
  • Sudden weight gain (due to hormone Changes) or sudden Weight Loss.
  • Decreased appetite.

How is it diagnosed?

Of course, in addition to clinical Symptoms, the detection and measurement of specific biomarkers such as RQ, lactic acid, CPK, CRP, and Overtraining syndrome.

Who is more likely to have Symptoms of Overtraining?

In general, people with: are more prone to Overtraining

  • Increased work obligations
  • Decreased sleep adequacy or poor quality sleep
  • Diet deficient in essential Nutrients
  • High family and personal obligations
  • Increased Stress in everyday life
  • People who often travel for racing reasons

What should an athlete avoid?

Of course, certain factors are related to Overtraining syndrome. Therefore an athlete should be careful and avoid the following:

  • The training program does not correspond to the athlete's performance (more complex).
  • Heavy racing program.
  • Wrong choice of the training plan.
  • Increased training with a reduced rest period.
  • Excessive increase in training intensity (execution speed, kg) without proper recovery.
  • Improper planning of Exercise -rest weeks (nutrient replenishment is not achieved correctly).

How is Overtraining treated?

The primary treatment is rest and a prolonged break from training. Adequate and quality sleep, proper Nutrition, Hydration, and therapy of Stress ors are essential for a complete recovery.

Nutritional Supplements for rehabilitation


You can boost your diet by taking a dietary supplement, such as a multivitamin. Thus, you will receive the necessary Stress and fight the harmful free radicals produced.


Of course, there are also the so-called adaptogenic Herbs that would probably help you "get rid" of the fatigue and exhaustion created by Overtraining. In particular, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Committee for Herbal Medicine (HMPC) have approved the use of Rhodiola Rosea as a traditional Herbal remedy for temporary relief of anxiety and fatigue Symptoms of reduced energy.


The role of protein is to repair muscle damage caused during Exercise by preventing muscle soreness and encouraging hypertrophy (increase in muscle mass). In particular, whey protein is a well-tolerated source of protein for recovery. It is immediately digested and highly Absorbed, increasing the levels of amino acids in the blood to repair muscle damage. It has anti-inflammatory action and increases glutathione (a powerful Antioxidant ) in the body.

BCAAs (Branched Chain Amino Acids)

BCAAs, i.e., the branched-chain amino acids: leucine, isoleucine, and valine, are essential for the human body and constitute one-third of the amino acids in muscle tissue. They are essential amino acids for synthesizing proteins and participate in the production of energy to maintain muscle mass. At the same time, their contribution to improving athletic performance is known.


Magnesium is a metal that participates in over 300 biochemical reactions in the body and contributes exceptionally well to properly functioning the nervous and muscular systems. Studies show that it significantly contributes to promoting muscle relaxation after workouts and resting the whole body if one considers that it helps a lot in quality sleep.


Endurance athletes such as Long-distance runners and marathon runners have lower levels of glutamine in their bodies compared to people who do not Exercise regularly. Taking glutamine before training or competition in this category of athletes helps to strengthen the Immune System, especially after Overtraining. [6]

It regulates the muscles and prevents the excess of lactic acid resulting from intense Calcium in the muscles, thus reducing muscle stiffness.

The best treatment is prevention.

Of course, as with most illnesses and health conditions, prevention is the best treatment. Preventing non-functional overeating and Overtraining is critical to your workout program's continued enjoyment and benefit. Here are some essential tips:

  • Listen to your body and take extra recovery time as indicated.
  • The advice of a sports dietitian can be helpful.
  • Quality sleep is Vital.
  • Follow the 10% rule. Do not increase the volume and intensity of the workout by more than 10% at a time.
  • Follow a form of periodization. Intermediate periods of intense/heavy training with extended rest/recovery and cross-training periods.
  • Rehabilitation/rest between intense workouts is crucial, as it is during this time that muscle tissue recovery and growth occur, usually1-3 days( 24 to 72 hours), depending on the intensity and volume of the Session.
  • You should not feel exhausted after a hard workout, and it would help if you thought you could do more.
  • Proper Hydration is essential.
  • The variety in your workout is healthy. Avoid repeating the Same Exercise program.

Maintaining a training log can help identify periods of oversupply and the need for additional recovery. Include variables such as your resting heart rate, sleep, weight (for Weight Loss ), mood, intensity/duration of the training, and how muscles and joints react. Properly rehabilitating and using a period plan for your Long-term workout will minimize the risk of Overtraining and keep your activity enjoyable.